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Federal Republic of Germany (100 Mark, 1989), Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)

The German romantic composer Clara Wieck Schumann (l8l9-l896) was one of the most famous pianists of her time, one of the great stars of 19th-century musical Europe. She premiered new works by Frederic Chopin, Johannes Brahms, and her husband Robert Schumann. While she composed prolifically from the age of nine, her spectacular performing career and the responsibility of supporting seven children after her husband's early death limited her output in her later years. Nonetheless, her musical output was 66 pieces. Clara Josephine Wieck was born in Leipzig, Germany, on September 13, 1819. Her father was a piano store owner and a highly esteemed piano teacher.

Italy (20000 Lire, 1975), Tiziano Vecellio (1488/90-1576)

Titian was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance. He was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. Titian was active until his death in Venice at the age about 91. His last work was a Pieta (now in the Accademia Museum in Venice), created for his own tomb and was completed after his death by Palma il Giovane.

Uruguay (2000 Pesos, 1989), Juan Manuel Balanes (1830-1901)

Juan Manuel Blanes was the most famous 19th century artist in Uruguay. He painted large canvases depicting the life and events from Uruguay's history. The art of Uruguay and the richness of its culture are phenomenal. Uruguay is very smaller in size and a population of less than 4 million but it has a very rich and pronounced artistic heritage. The Uruguyan artist Carlos Paez Vilaro painted one of the longest murals in the world in the Pan American Union building in Washington. Vilaro also painted a mural for the United Nations buildind in New York City.

Brazil (5 Cruzados, 1989), Candido Portinari (1903-1962)

Brazilian painter. He studied at the National School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro. In 1955 he created two large murals of War and Peace for the United Nations General Assembly Building in New York City.


Sweden(50 Kronor, 1996), Jenny Lind (1820-1887)

At ten years of age Jenny Lind sang children parts on the Stockholm stage. After turning 12 years of age, her upper notes lost sweetness, and for four years she did not do much singing. But her love for music continued and at that time she devoted herself to the study of instrumental music and composition. At the end of of this period her voice had recovered its power and purity. In 1847 she went to London and performed the first concert. Jenny Lind visited America in 1850. She spent the last years of her life in London.


Bulgaria(100 Leva,1991), Zahari Hristovich Zograf

He was a famous painter of churches, monasteries, and cathedrals during the 18th century. One of Zahari Zograf's work is called the "Circle of Life".

Norway (100 Kroner,1995), Kristen Flagstad(1895-1962)

Norwegian opera singer who during a long career beginning in the early 1930's became Wagnerian soprano of the mid twentienth century. This outstanding opera singer made her first record at the age of 19 and during 45 years she made about one thousand recordings. She joined the Metropolitan Opera in NewYork in 1935.

Italy (10000 Lire, 1970), Michelangelo (1475-1564)

The Italian painter, sculptor,architect, and poet whose artistic accomplishments extended a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent European art. Michelangelo considered the male nude to be the foremost subject in art, and he explored its range of movement and expression in every medium. His main media were marble craving and fresco painting. The emotion-charged, muscular bodies of Hellenistic sculpture, their heroic scale and superhuman beauty and power became part of Michelangelo's own style.

Italy (50000 Lire,1974), Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musiciam and writer. He is  widely considered to be one of the greatest painter of all time. Two of his works, the  Mona Lisa  and  The Last Supper, are the most famous, most reproduced and most parodied portrait and religious painting of all time.

Switzerland (50 Franken,1994), Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943)

One of the most radical artist of the early 20th century. Sophie Taeuber-Arp was born in Davos, Switzerland. She left home at 18 to study textile design in Germany and remained there a half-dozen years, during which time she was inspired by the innovative experiments of the German expressionists. Taeuber Arp was active in Zurich's dada group. She also produced innovative theatrical designs, embroideries, weavings, and sculptures.

Belgium (200 Fances, 1995), Adolphe Sax (1814-1894)

Adolphe Sax invented and patented the saxophone in 1846. He used to teach the saxophone at the Paris Conservatory from 1857 to 1871.

Poland (5000 Zloty, 1988), Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)

Perhaps the greatest of all composers for the piano was Chopin. He was called a "musical genius" when he was a teenager. He began to take piano lessons when he was 6 years old. He started to compose music even before he knew how to write down his ideas. At the age of 8 he performed in a public charity concert. Chopin died of tuberculosis at the age.                                            

Slovenia (100 Tolarjev 1992), Rihard Jakopic (1869-1943)

Jakopic studied at the Vienna Academy, the Azbe Art School in Munich, and the Hynais Art Academy in Prague. In Ljubljana, he established the Slovenian School of Impressionist Drawing and Painting, the predecessor of the Academy of Art, and built a pavilion in Tivoli Park that became the central venue for art exhibitions in Slovenia.

Italy (5000 Lire, 1985), Vincenzo Bellini ( 1801-1835 )

Bellini was an Italian composer, who was born in Sicily and trained at the conservatory of music, Naples.  Bellini was a child prodigy from a highly musical family and he could sing an aria of Valentino Fioravanti at eighteen months. He began studying music theory at two, the piano at three, and by the age of five he could apparently play well. Bellini's first five pieces were composed when he was just six years old.

Belgium (100 Francs,1995), James Ensor (1860-1949)

James Ensor was a Belgian painter and printmaker who had an important influence on expressionism and surrealism. He lived in Ostend, Belgium for almost his entire life. He has greatly influenced the artists of the next generations.

Armenia (50 Drams, 1998), Aram Khachaturyan (1903-1978)

He studied music and began to play cello at the age of nineteen. In Moscow he learned both composition and conducting. Khachaturyan's music was noted for being cheerful, rhythmic, and sensuous. In 1968, he visited several cities in the United States and conducted orchestras in concerts consisting entirely of his own compositions.

Italy (1000 Lire, 1975), Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)

G. Verdi was an Italian composer of Operas. His works are performed more often today than those of any other opera composer. He composed some of the most popular operas of all time. The prelude is from Verdi's opera Aida, an example of grand opera. Grand opera emphasized spectacular stage effects, big crowd scenes, and complicated, elaborate vocal and instrumental music.

Kyrgyzstan (5 Som, 1994), Bubusara Beishenaliyeva (1926-1973)

Ballet is one of the world's great performing art traditions and the Russian and Soviet contribution to the genre is globally acknowledged. One of the great ballerinas of the mid-20th century was the Kyrgyz Bubusara Beishenalieva (1926-1973), who grew up in the amazing, truly revolutionary years of the 1920s and 1930s – a time of unprecedented social, economic and cultural growth and enthusiasm when Soviet artists, writers, choreographers and dancers were a major influence in the contemporary art world internationally. 


Uruguay (200 Pesos Uruguayos, 2000), Pedro Figari (1861-1938)

Pedro Figari was a Uruguayan painterlawyerwriter, and politician. Although he did not begin the practice until his later years, he is best known as an early modernist painter who emphasized capturing the every-day aspects of life in his work. In most of his pieces, he attempts to capture the essence of his home by painting the bourgeoisie’s local customs that he had observed in his childhoodFigari painted primarily from memory, a technique that gives his work a far more personal feeling. With his unique style, which involved painting without the intention to create an illusion, he, along with other prominent Latin-American artists such as Diego Rivera and Tarsila do Amaral, sparked a revolution of identity in the art world of Latin America.

Estonia, (1 Kroon, 1992), Kristjan Raud (1865-1943)

Raud spent long years studying in St.Petersburg, Dusseldorf and Munich. He returned to Estonia in 1903 to establish his artistic career. Most of his works were based on Estonian folklore. Raud is remembered not only as one of the first national romantic Estonian artists but also as the best-known illustrator of the Estonian epic Kalevipoeg (The Son of Kalev).


Kyrgyzstan (1 Som,1994), Abdylas Maldybaev (1906 – 1978)

Abdylas Maldybaev was a Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer. Maldybaev was one of the composers of the state anthem of the Kirghiz SSR and is still renowned for his operatic composition. He helped popularize Kyrgyz music by skillfully using Western European techniques.

Netherlands (10 Gulden, 1968), Frans Hals (1580-1666)

Frans Hals was a Dutch Golden Age painter especially famous for portraiture. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals was also instrumental in the evolution of 17th century group portraiture. Hals is best known for his portraits of wealthy citizens and large group of civil guards.

Iceland (2000 Kronur 1989), Johannes S. Kjarval (1885 - 1972)

Johannes S. Kjarval holds a special place in Icelandic art history and culture as one of the most highly regarded artists of the nation. He was a living legend and by many considered the ultimate romantic bohemian artist. His roots lay in the old Icelandic rural community, but his life and art are tightly bound to the cultural awakening of the nation in the first half of the 20th century. Kjarval is famous for his interpretation of Icelandic nature. He captured the beauty and the mystical quality of the land. His landscapes express a comprehension of nature based on the gift for entering into it and perceiving it from within, along with a strong sympathy for all living things that inhabit it. His depiction of lava emphasizing its surface and tactility gave a new dimension to the Icelanders' perception of nature and brought its close and unassuming details to their attention.  

Slovenia (200 Tolarjev, 1992), Jacobus Gallus (1550-1591)

Gallus was one of the great Czech composer of Slovene origin in the late Renaissance period. Scarcely known today, Gallus' music stands out as a monument to beauty and spirituality. He was born in 1550 somewhere in Carniola, probably in Ribnica in Sovenia. He died in Prague in 1591.


Austria (100 Schilling ,1960), Johann Strauss II (1825 – 1899)

Johann Strauss was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas. He composed over 500 waltzespolkasquadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King", and was largely responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century.


Italy (100000 Lire, 2000), Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571 –1610)

Caravaggio was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on the Baroque school of painting.

Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under a master who had himself trained under Titian. He is Probably the most revolutionary artist of his time, who abandoned the rules that had guided a century of artists before him. They had idealized the human and religious experience.