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Switzerland (10 Francs, 1979), Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)

Swiss mathematician Euler was born and educated in Basel, Switzerland. He showed an early talent for mathematics and languages. He worked as a professor of mathematics in St. Petersburg and later in Berlin. He is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

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Italy (2000 Lire, 1973) Galileo Gallilei (1564-1642)

Galileo was the first modern scientists who made critical discoveriesof how to think about moving bodies. He studied medicine at 

the University of Pisa but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. In 1952, he was appointed as a

professor of mathematics at the University of Padua. (The University of the Republic of Venice)

Italy (10000 Lire, 1984), Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)

Volta was born and educated in Rome, Italy. He became professor of physics at the Royal School in 1774 and at the University of Pavia in 1779. He is best known for the development of the electric battery in 1800.

Croatia(1 Dinar, 1991), Rudjer Boskovic (1711-1787)

Boskovic was a great mathematician, astronomer and philosopher, born in Dubrovnik. He studied at the famous Jesuit Collegium Romanum in Rome. After completing his theological training he became a priest. Boskovic visited all the important European countries and became a French citizen. He wrote and published scientific and philosophical works in Latin, Italian and French.

Austria (1000 schilling, 1983), Erwin Schroedinger

One of the primary developers of the quantum theory, the theory that explains the properties of matter as arising from the properties of its constituent parts electrons and nuclei. The success of the theory has made possible the development of modern electronics, including transistors and lasers.

10 pounds 2000 back

Great Britain, (10 Pounds, 2000), Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)

Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England. He was the British naturalist who became famous for his theories of evolution and natural selection. Darwin believed all living things on earth evolved over millions of years from a few common ancestors.
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Israel ( 5 Lirot, 1968), Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Einstein was born in Germany but immigrated to the United States in 1933. In 1905, he authored the general theory of relativity. In 1919, the British solar eclipse expeditions confirmed his theory that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the sun in the exact amount as he predicted. After that Einstein became world-famous. In 1921, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.


Kazakhstan (1 Tenge, 1993), abu Nasar Al-Farabi (870-950)

He was scholar in many areas including philosophy, linguistics, logic, and music. He also wrote about the nature of science and argued for the existence of the vacuum (empty space).

Greece ( 100 Drachma ), Democritus (460--370 BC)

Democritus was an excellent geometer and was also best known for his atomic theory. He was one of the earliest of the ancient philosophers to describe matter as made up of small indivisible particles (atoms) moving in empty space. 

United States Of America (100 Dollars), Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston. He was a man of many talents and interests. In June 1752Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity.

Serbia (100 Dinara, 2003), Nikola Telsa (1856-1943)

He was the electrical engineer who invented the AC (alternating current) induction motor. He worked as an electrical engineer in Budapest, Hungary, France and Germany. Telsa moved to united States in 1884, where he worked for Thomas Edison.

Poland (1000 zloty, 1982) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)

He was the first modern scientist to propose a model of the solar system in which the sun was at the center, circled by the planets moving in orbits, but not supported by any invisible crystal spheres. He surpressed publication of his work until after his death.

Federal Republic of Germany (10 Mark, 1993) Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855)

Gauss worked in a wide variety of fields in both mathematics and physics incuding number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics. His work has had an immense influence in many areas.

Sweden (100 Kronor, 1986), Carl von Linne (1707-1779)

He was a Swedish botanistphysician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.

Netherlands (25 Gulden, 1955),Christian Huygens (1629-1695)

Christian Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematicianastronomerphysicisthorologist, and writer of early science fictionHuygens was a contemporary of Newton's who made many important discoveries and inventions. As a result of improvements that he made to the telescope, he was the first to realize that Saturn had rings. (Galileo thought it was a "triple planet".) He made the first pendulum closk, which substantially improved the accuracy of the measurement of time. His description of how waves propagate form the basis of modern wave theories.